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In Action

Is There a Doctor Left in the House?
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Press Release

Is There a Doctor Left in the House?

Recently, the trauma center at the University of Nevada Medical Center in Las Vegas closed its doors to the public. The reason? Physicians and surgeons working in the trauma center could no longer afford the costly malpractice insurance premiums arising from the constant threat of lawsuits. With the trauma center closed, critically injured patients would have to be transported to a similar center five hours away. It was only after the surgeons agreed to be re-classified as county employees (which provided a shield against excessive lawsuits) that the trauma center reopened its doors.

08/21/2002
The President Leads
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Press Release

The President Leads

President George W. Bush took another important step last week in defining who he is and what he will fight for. It was the kind of bold move that will be talked about for years after he has left the presidency. He placed principle ahead of politics – which is pretty close to a man bites dog story these days.

08/20/2002
Republican Newcomers Vie in New East Wake District
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Republican Newcomers Vie in New East Wake District

BY Cindy George

Editor's note: This is the first in a series of previews of Sept. 10 primaries in Wake legislative districts. Next: The Republican primary in N.C. Senate District 15. KNIGHTDALE -- One thing is for sure: A Knightdale woman will win the Republican primary in N.C. Senate District 14. Carol Bennett and Loretta Thompson, both political newcomers, want to represent residents in a new district that covers eastern Wake County. The winner of the primary Sept. 10 faces veteran Democrat Vernon Malone, a Wake County commissioner, and Libertarian Richard Davison on Nov. 5. The district's incumbent senator, Democrat Brad Miller, is running for Congress. The area has a slight Democratic majority. Both Bennett and Thompson say North Carolina needs tighter reins on the state budget, and both want to improve education. "It starts at the top with the budget," said Bennett, 59, a horse breeder. "We need to attack the whole fiscal program of the entire state, find out where the money is seeping out and plug up those holes. That should put more money back into the budget for education." Her days as a physics professor at the University of Illinois taught her the importance of education, she said. "Leave no child unlearned. That's my motto," Bennett said. "If people will realize what they really want is better education for every child, they'll vote for me." For two years, Thompson has been the host of "Take A Stand," a local access cable television program that offers a conservative Christian view of social and financial issues. She's also a leader in North Carolina's anti-abortion movement. "The children we educate today are the leaders of tomorrow," said Thompson, 45, an administrative assistant. "It's imperative that our children are safe, that they are well-educated and that education also looks at moral issues. Our system of government is not designed to succeed in an amoral society. In everything that I look at, I'm looking at the children." ### Split over lottery Though both Thompson and Bennett support allowing parents to use tax-funded vouchers to send their childrento private and parochial schools, they disagree about a state lottery. Bennett said she would support a voter-approved lottery with tight financial management, but Thompson has signed a pledge with Citizens for a Sound Economy never to support one. "The lottery is another tax that tells our children you don't have to get a good education, you can play the lottery and be set, as opposed to working hard, saving their money and moving forward," Thompson said. ### A beef with lawyers Bennett, who has devoted the past eight years to her independent law studies, often represents herself in court and has been involved in at least a dozen lawsuits since 1994. She is appealing an order that requires her to get a lawyer's help to file any more legal paperwork. Tailgaters can see what drives Bennett on her two bumper stickers, which say "Vote for Non-Lawyers" and "Make Lawyers Accountable." She started a grass-roots movement called Citizens for Legal Reform to encourage voters to elect candidates who are not lawyers. The day before the primary, Thompson will be on the last-minute campaign circuit, but Bennett expects to be in court. A 4-year-old case is scheduled to go to trial Sept. 9, and she plans to be there to represent herself. ### N.C. SENATE DISTRICT 14 REPUBLICAN PRIMARY THE JOB: The 50-member N.C. Senate helps decide how the state spends $ 14 billion a year, oversees state agencies and passes laws on state and local issues. Senators also appoint people to state boards and provide constituent services. SALARY: $ 13,951 a year, plus $ 559 monthly expense allowance and $ 104 a day for other expenses during session. TERM: Two years. CAROL BENNETT HOME: 1709 Horton Road, Knightdale. DATE OF BIRTH: Feb. 4, 1943. FAMILY: Divorced. EDUCATION: Bachelor's degree in physics, University of Michigan, 1965; education certificate, 1966; master's degree in physics, University of Michigan, 1967; Ph.D. candidacy, University of Michigan, 1969. OCCUPATION: Self-employed horse breeder; owner, Brighton Stables and Centerline Tack. POLITICAL EXPERIENCE: None. CIVIC ACTIVITIES: Member, N.C. Horse Council; member, HALT, a legal reform advocacy group; member, N.C. Consumers Council. RELIGIOUS AFFILIATION: Christian. HOBBIES: Horses, legal research. POLITICAL HERO: President Ronald Reagan. LAST BOOK READ: "North Carolina Civil Procedure" by G. Gray Wilson. WHAT MAKES YOU BEST QUALIFIED: "No. 1, I am not a lawyer, and No. 2, I have a social conscience and devotion to protect our citizens' rights." TOP PRIORITY IF ELECTED: The state budget. "Attack the budget. Make the government accountable for expenditures. I want to bring the money back to the people." HOW TO CONTACT: Phone, 217-2410; e-mail, cb0901@@bellsouth.net; Web site (under construction), www.ncbennett.org. LORETTA THOMPSON HOME: 107 Brookfield Drive, Knightdale. DATE OF BIRTH: Jan. 2, 1957. FAMILY: Husband, Stacy; two sons, one stepson, one stepdaughter. EDUCATION: Diploma, Furman High School, 1975. OCCUPATION: Administrative assistant, Triangle Temporaries. POLITICAL EXPERIENCE: None. CIVIC ACTIVITIES: State director, American Victims of Abortion, 1998 to present; vice president, N.C. Right to Life, 1999-present; chairwoman, Wake County Right to Life, 1996 to 1999. RELIGIOUS AFFILIATION: Sunday school teacher, Green Pines Baptist Church. HOBBIES: Reading, road trips. POLITICAL HEROES: Presidents Ronald Reagan and Abraham Lincoln. LAST BOOK READ: "None Dare Call It Education," by John Stormer. WHAT MAKES YOU BEST QUALIFIED: "I understand the unique challenges of eastern Wake County. I grew up on a farm in South Carolina. I know the issues and will fight for the people's rights and needs. I live in eastern Wake and I am committed to have their voices heard." TOP PRIORITY IF ELECTED: "I will work to ensure the appropriate funding is there to complete the [Interstate] 540 Loop and the U.S. 64 Bypass. I will work to ensure our schools have what they need to educate our future (the children of N.C.). I will work for a balanced and reasonable budget."

08/20/2002
It's Time to Reform Social Security
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Press Release

It's Time to Reform Social Security

Reform Social Security Published: Aug 18, 2002 in the Tampa Tribune

08/19/2002
Personal Technology
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Personal Technology

CURRENT AFFAIRS WorldCom News http://www.worldcomnews.com SaveOnPhone, an online telecommunications resource, has created this site to help explain the complexities of the WorldCom situation. It includes a chronology of events and archived articles on the scandal. Federal Budget http://www.uky.edu/Subject/currentall.html#fb11 This resource site, compiled by the University of Kentucky libraries, includes links for such budget-related sites as the House Appropriations Committee and Citizens for a Sound Economy, a grass-roots organization. REFERENCE Chronicle of the Berlin Wall http://www.dailysoft.com/berlinwall The Berlin Wall was built in 1945 and stood as the foremost symbol of the Cold War until its fall in 1989. This site helps capture the tension of those decades when East and West were divided. Dictionary.com http://dictionary.com Go directly to the site or use the built-in Dictionary.com lookup at the Google search site, http://google.com. To get the definition of a word after searching for it at Google, click on your underlined search term in the blue bar where it says "Searched the Web for." Robert's Rules of Order http://www.bartleby.com/176/ Published in 1876, the Pocket Manual of Rules of Order by Gen. Henry M. Robert made the rules of running Congress available to any organization. This site offers a complete reference to the 1915 revised version. SPORTS Beach Volleyball Database http://www.bvbinfo.com It's never too late to enjoy summer in San Diego, and a big part of that has to be beach volleyball. Check out this source for all things beach volleyball, men's and women's. Did you know the sport dates back to 1895? Arm Wrestling World Wide http://www.armpullers.com San Diegans Allen and Carolyn Fisher created this site to promote and encourage the sport of arm wrestling. Find a transcription of official rules, links to related sites and the personal competition stories of the Fishers. Top 10 HEALTH QUERIES Popular health and fitness query words, according to Google.com search engine. 1. Diabetes 2. Pregnancy 3. Viagra 4. Anorexia 5. Fitness 6. Medline 7. Yoga 8. Massage 9. Weight Watchers 10. Health

08/19/2002
The Tax Man Goeth
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The Tax Man Goeth

BY Leonard Wiener

OK, they've inflated profits, padded their paychecks, and stiffed the Treasury by labeling a mail drop in an offshore tax haven as a company's home. So now we're supposed to give corporations a pass on paying income tax? When even the upright among corporate chieftains are under suspicion, that's a request for "more" that even Oliver Twist might think twice about. But it's not that far fetched. There's a lot of quiet Republican support for the idea, and though the issue is on the back burner for now, both Treasury Secretary Paul O'Neill and Council of Economic Advisers Chairman R. Glenn Hubbard are opponents of the corporate income tax. The political barriers to handing out a new break to business on top of this year's stimulus package and shrinking government revenue are admittedly high, especially when executives are being led off in handcuffs. Democrats are lambasting President Bush for being too cozy with business; Rep. Charles Rangel of New York says demonizing the corporate tax encourages companies to try to avoid it. But a drumbeat of proselytizing by economists and academics is nevertheless pushing the idea that the corporate levy just isn't working. "The rules are arcane, archaic, and nonsensical," says Ernest Christian, a Washington attorney and Ford administration tax official. Such talk makes Robert McIntyre, director of the liberal Citizens for Tax Justice, see red--and red ink for the government. "If you're going to tax income at all, you have to include corporate income," he says. "Otherwise, large amounts of income would escape any tax." But that is already happening. The corporate levy--which raised $ 151 billion last year, down from $ 207 billion in 2000 when profits were easier to come by--may be an endangered species in its current form. Last year's take was the lowest since 1994 and accounted for only 7.6 percent of federal revenue, down from 26.5 percent in 1950. Individuals, meanwhile, are picking up a bigger share of the income tax burden. In 1950, corporations kicked in 39.9 percent of the total collected, while individuals ponied up 60.1 percent. Last year, corporations paid 13.2 percent, while individuals forked over the remaining 86.8 percent. Tax trimming. The official corporate tax rate tops out at 35 percent. But many firms legally skirt a large share of their liability--and sometimes all of it--through tax breaks and accounting maneuvers. A Citizens for Tax Justice analysis of 250 large corporations found that in the late 1990s the average tax paid was less than 22 percent of pretax U.S. profit. The watchdog group's recent sampling of 10 large firms found that for 1999 and 2000, the take was below 6 percent. The analysis concluded that Microsoft in 2000 had pretax U.S. profit of $ 9.6 billion but paid out only 12.2 percent of that in tax, while General Motors, with 2000 pretax profits of $ 2.95 billion, used various deductions and credits to pay no tax. A General Motors spokesman disputes CTJ's methodology and says the firm did pay an undisclosed amount of tax. "It's easy to oversimplify our situation," he says. As with many business issues, accounting practices can muddy the water. Corporations typically count deferred taxes as part of their debt to the Internal Revenue Service when publicizing the tax they pay. Those future liabilities are often the result of rules that allow depreciating assets to be deducted much more quickly than the assets are being used up. But the deferred tax may not be paid if a firm keeps building deductions through new capital spending. Groups such as CTJ don't count deferred obligations when tallying current taxes paid. One result of aggressive tax avoidance is an increasing gap between the profit that firms report to shareholders (which often affects their stock price) and the amount they tell the IRS. Shareholder profits, for example, are not always reduced to reflect the full amount of deductions and bookkeeping tricks that companies can use to reduce their profits before figuring their tax. So while a lot of attention is focused on reports to shareholders that may give too rosy a view of a company's finances, the IRS may be getting too bleak a view. Bonus depreciation write-offs in this year's economic stimulus act will add to the gap, notes economist David Wyss of Standard & Poor's. Overall, income at large firms could be roughly 50 percent higher than the amount reported to the IRS, estimates Harvard Business School Prof. Mihir Desai. That would be up from about 20 percent about five years ago. "Firms have apparently been finding more-sophisticated opportunities to avoid or evade corporate taxes," Desai says. Bermuda-bound. But as the current flap over corporate moves to offshore tax havens like Bermuda shows, it's not always smooth sailing. In this sleight-of-hand tactic, a U.S. corporation sets up a firm in a foreign tax haven. It then turns the U.S. operation into a subsidiary of the foreign company. The payoff is a reduction in U.S. income tax. Connecticut-based tool and hardware maker Stanley Works estimated it could save $ 30 million a year by reincorporating in tax-free Bermuda, a plan it canceled after mounting public and congressional criticism. Such offshore headquarters "make a sucker out of working Americans and companies that stay in the United States and pay their fair share of taxes," says Republican Sen. Charles Grassley of Iowa. "The headquarters may be little more than a filing cabinet and a mailbox." Corporate perfidy, meanwhile, may be souring the atmosphere for legitimate reform. The saintly rationale for moving offshore is to escape or reduce U.S. tax on foreign sales and to compete better against overseas companies that may get better tax breaks on their exports and foreign income. But the sucker punch is that a firm may also arrange spurious tax-deductible loans through the foreign affiliate and thus cut tax on its U.S. operations. University of Michigan law Prof. Reuven Avi-Yonah suggests calling the boardroom bluff. "From where is the corporation managed and controlled?" he asks, noting it would be rare for executives to actually relocate to a tax haven. Crackdowns by Congress on a range of corporate tax behavior may be coming. Proposed rules would require firms to more fully disclose the inner workings of their tax returns, and the IRS, once berated as too tough, is winning lawmaker support for an assault on flaky tax shelters. A ban on federal contracts to firms moving abroad is pending, and Congress is debating tougher restraints. The IRS, meanwhile, has begun an attack on both corporate and investor tax shelters using existing powers. New York tax attorney Marc Teitelbaum warns that strategies such as paper relocations offshore could be ruled invalid if they lack a business purpose other than to avoid tax. Part of the problem with the corporate tax is that benefits for specific industries and companies have created a labyrinth "beyond the mind of man to comprehend," says Christian. Edward McCaffery, chair of the University of Southern California Institute on Federal Taxation, says the code's complexity and pliability penalize smaller firms. "Accountants have been making a killing by peddling complex tax shelter schemes to minimize or avoid the corporate tax. Big firms can afford that; mid- and small-size firms often can't," he says. Divvying up. One proposed reform that might sit well with a public disgusted by recent corporate behavior is eliminating the double taxation of dividends. Now, they are taxed as corporate profit and then again as income received by shareholders. That can diminish the appeal of dividends and give cover to corporate managers who prefer to hoard or invest a firm's profits. Some plans would remove one level of tax, but others would go all the way by killing both the corporate and personal levy on dividends. That kind of approach, some argue, could revive dividends and bolster stock prices. Political reality is causing some proponents of change to push for major refurbishing of the corporate tax in lieu of repeal. Jason Thomas, staff economist at Citizens for a Sound Economy, suggests promoting simplicity and investment by revising depreciation rules that require the cost of new equipment to be deducted over time. He would let firms deduct the entire cost when the item is bought. Congress, meanwhile, is considering proposals to reduce the taxation of foreign profits of U.S. firms and to reshape incentives for exports. But no matter what the level of enforcement or collection, critics say the corporate tax hits more than just the rich and powerful. "It is a cost that is passed on to consumers in higher prices, to investors in reduced dividends or capital gains, and to workers in lessened wages," says economist Thomas. To all of which Lee Sheppard, an attorney and contributing editor of Tax Notes, has a ready answer. The corporate tax, she says, is not a cost that is passed on but comes straight out of profits. "Corporations just don't want to pay taxes; there's a lot of whining." What the antitaxers are waiting for is a calmer and financially robust climate in which they can get more respect.

08/19/2002
Outgoing School Board Member Honored for 20-Year Service
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Outgoing School Board Member Honored for 20-Year Service

BY Susan Broili

HILLSBOROUGH - About 100 people turned out to pay tribute to Bob Bateman upon his retirement after 20 years on the Orange County school board. Jonathan Hill, who heads Citizens for a Sound Economy, awarded Bateman the group's Outstanding Achievement award at the dinner held Thursday at the Hillsborough Exchange Club. The grassroots, nonprofit organization of 30,000 members stands for "less government, low taxes and more personal freedom," Hill said. "We think that Bob has stood with those principles on the school board," Hill said. "Any man that's been a true conservative for 20 years on the Orange County School Board, when he gets to heaven, there's going to be a line that says 'No Waiting,' " Hill said. Before the formal presentation, people talked about why they had come to the dinner in Bateman's honor. Robin Staudt said she had known Bateman since she became involved with Citizens for a Sound Economy four years ago. Staudt is a candidate for the Orange County Board of Commissioners. "The fact that he has maintained his conservative stance on the school board - he's really worked hard to find a balance between expenditure and what children really need," she said. "He really wants to keep the tax base down, because he knows the people in Orange County can't afford ever-rising taxes." "I appreciated what he's tried to do," Rachel Phelps Hawkins said. "He's always taken a stand and never wavered. He's had our interests at heart." Hawkins, who has lived in the county all her life, said she likes Bateman's common-sense approach. "We as Orange County natives appreciate that," Hawkins said. Other attendees include candidates for various county, state and national offices, including state Sen. Howard Lee,D-Orange. Hillsborough Mayor Joe Phelps served as emcee. When Bateman got up to speak, he thanked everyone for being there. "It wouldn't have been much of a party if I had been over here by myself," Bateman said. He said he especially appreciated the presence of fellow school board members Brenda Stephens, Keith Cook and David Kolbinsky. (Cook is a candidate for the Orange County Board of Commissioners). Bateman talked about his 20 years on the school board, what it was like being in the minority as a conservative, as well as some of the achievements he is most proud of from those years. He was unsuccessful in his first bid, in 1980, for a seat on the school board. "I did get enough votes to encourage me to do it again," Bateman said. He won his first seat on the school board in 1982, and then, eventually, wound up getting 65 percent to 75 percent of the vote, he said. "I am very proud of that," Bateman said. He also noted, as a mark of achievement for the board, the hiring in 1994 of William Harrison as superintendent, which changed the direction of the school system "from a kind of mediocrity to a system that had aims and goals," Bateman said. Harrison set up a standard course of study and also was responsible for the positive move of bringing in Randy Bridges as assistant superintendent of personnel, Bateman said. Bridges went on to be named superintendent and just left to take a job in Rock Hill, S.C. Being a minority on the board has not been easy, Bateman said. "What I thought was a liberal board in 1982 holds no candle to the board today," Bateman said. The last year has been tough for a number of reasons, he said. "It's been a kind of up and down year. Last August, I was diagnosed with clogged arteries and had triple bypass surgery. ... Some judge moved the election date and gave me five more months on the school board. I believe I'd rather go through the heart operation," Bateman said. "Some of the toughest battles in the last 20 years have been with the Orange County Commissioners, and that has not changed from what it was in 1982," Bateman said. "All these years, I've tried to do what I could for the children ... children don't come in neat little packages ... You need to be able to take care of them ... I try to be all I can be for the children," he said. Bateman thanked his family: His wife, Joyce, of 44 years, and his three children. "I thank God tonight for his grace and his mercy and for keeping me as far as he has," Bateman said. He spoke of how his conservative views had been formed from his experience of growing up, as one of seven children, in the west Hillsborough community of Bell-vue, where he was born in 1933 to Ernest and Mary Bateman. "We had it so hard," Bateman said. When he was in the 11th or 12th grade, his father had a heart attack and was forced to retire from working at the cotton mill, where he had made little money and had no pension, Bateman said. His father never owned a car, Bateman said. "Every month, my dad would get a Social Security check, and that was it," Bateman said. "So many people in rural Orange County are in this boat. ... They live kind of hand-to-mouth, and then you sit up every year and raise their property tax," Bateman said. And, he spoke of some activities, such as flounder fishing, he plans to pursue in his retirement from the school board. "Flounder fishing is not a habit, it's a passion. When you pull a 5-pound flounder on the top of that ocean ... there's just no feeling in the world like flounder fishing," he said. Because of an earlier remark about the chance that he might continue to pursue his interest in singing, Bateman told the story about how he had recorded his first, and, so far, only CD. The recording session was a gift from his son, Mark, who wanted him to make a CD of Bateman's favorite hymns. So about a year ago, Bateman and a pianist went to a recording studio in Carrboro. "We recorded 15 songs, one right after another. Someone asked me if I wanted to edit. I said no. If I do it anymore, it won't get any better," Bateman said. He gave one of the CDs to his sick brother, and when he went to see his brother the last week he lived, his brother had been listening to the CD, Bateman said. "There are several [CDs] out in Hillsborough," he said. "I don't know if people use them in their gardens to keep the crows away."

08/18/2002
Global Warming Is Good for You!
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Global Warming Is Good for You!

BY Dylan Otto Krider

Above all, Gerald T. Westbrook is a man concerned with truth. For hours he works at his computer in the small office of his Memorial-area home, writing his latest scholarly paper or drawing up a lecture. He's the kind of guy who writes everything out in lists, and packs boxes with files of news clippings and interesting tidbits he's come across in his research. His cane, needed after a knee injury, and hair as white as paper add to the professorial image.He insists he's a firm believer in the scientific method, and a strong proponent for making sure research is dictated by facts, not personal agendas. Westbrook regularly delivers talks to trade associations and seminars to local universities. His scientific papers have appeared in several publications, and he's even had an opinion piece published by the Houston Chronicle. Westbrook's specialty has spawned a near cottage industry of sorts in the Houston area. In this energy capital of America, eager listeners still abound for the message delivered by Westbrook and at least a handful of colleagues: Global warming threats are just so much foolishness, hatched by environmentalists to fuel the fears of the populace. He himself boasts no more than a master's degree and a career focused on marketing and economics, rather than doctorates or published research in the field. But in this war for the public's collective mind and soul, credentials don't have to get in the way of a worthy crusade against the common enemy called environmentalists. Westbrook still considers himself a scientist. "A degree's not everything," he says. "Look at Rush Limbaugh. He's only got, what, one and a half years of junior college? And he's smart as a whip."In the case of global warming, Westbrook believes environmentalists have subverted the scientific process to manufacture the appearance of a consensus. "You would think with the war on terror and homeland defense, there would be no attention paid to this issue at all," Westbrook says.An energy economist, he retired as head of the marketing department after 40 years at Dow Chemical. He helps out at his wife's flower shop, Roomful of Flowers, and his TSBV consulting company forecasts the demand of petrochemicals for groups looking to get into a particular market. Westbrook doesn't watch much TV, but when he does it's usually Fox News. He counts the hosts of talk-radio shows among the most influential people in his life. Although he occasionally picks up The New York Times to "find out what the far left is up to," he researches primarily from newsletters and the Internet, explaining that he wants be sure his information is free from taint and political bias. With liberals now firmly in control of the media, universities and entertainment industries, he says, the Web is the only medium where conservatives can get the truth out. Westbrook insists that everything he uses must come from the no-spin zone, sources that tell it like it is, then leave it for him to decide. And he likes his science the same way. He traces his love of energy to the coal-heated house of his youth. "When you got up in the morning, the furnace was almost out and the place was pretty damn cold," Westbrook recalls. When the family upgraded to natural gas, well, that was different. "Natural gas was wonderful," he beams. You can see it in his eyes: The man loves energy, and he'll tangle with anyone who tries to give petroleum or its by-products a bad name. "Ask yourself," he says, "where would society be today if we did not have plastics?" Westbrook's interest in science was sparked by a tiny unfenced refinery that made low-octane gasoline, kerosene and the like in his hometown of Saskatchewan. His father used to take him to wander through the distillation towers to look at the furnace. It was about 12 feet high and tapered off into a stack, with fire visible through the air vents. Occasionally excess gases ignited in the flare stack, spouting a giant flame into the sky. This was the '40s, entering the golden age of science fiction, and for the young Westbrook, it must have looked like something far into the future. "It's almost like space-age exploration, only you do it on the microscale," Westbrook says of petrochemicals. "You look at some of these catalysts or molecules floating around there, and it's almost like you're floating in space." Westbrook went on to collect a master's degree in chemical engineering at the University of Saskatchewan and another master's in energy economics at the University of Minnesota, both within two years. "This was sort of a salvage job," he says. He originally set out to get a Ph.D. "I just came to the conclusion I did not want the university career," he says. "I was too practical-oriented, too applied-oriented, too much interested in commercial things." For his thesis he did "paper research," meaning no lab work was involved, and his career has chiefly been in marketing and economics. He realizes his strong ties to the energy industry may make people skeptical of his conclusions, but Westbrook describes himself as a bit of a maverick who never quite got along with the folks in charge. The oil industry "would never pick me to be their spokesman," he says. He just believes global warming is the latest unfair attack on an industry that has done so much for society.The "science" disseminated by Westbrook and the hundreds like him across the country seems to be sinking in. Internet chat rooms buzz about the myth of human-induced climate change. That message is repeated time and again through letters to the editor and by the punditry class, insisting warming is nothing more than a half-baked theory, with few believers within the scientific community. Groups like the Citizens for a Sound Economy even object to Texas using high school science textbooks that mention an issue that is "by no means resolved in scientific findings."Westbrook worries that concerns generated by flimsy data may lead to brash actions that could damage the economy. Even if global warming could be proved true -- a big if, Westbrook will have you know -- all the evidence seems to show that it would be beneficial for mankind. The time has come, he believes, for skeptics to set the record straight. There are those, however, who are skeptical of the skeptics. Sheldon Rampton, co-editor of PR Watch, a quarterly that keeps tabs on public relations campaigns and industrial front groups, says the debate about whether humans are warming the planet is finished in the scientific community. The real story, he says, is how self-proclaimed experts have been able to obfuscate well-established scientific fact in the eyes of the public. Call it the myth of the global warming myth. The controversy, Rampton says, is coming not from the researchers themselves but from special interest groups with weak scientific credentials and strong ties to the energy industry. He says their claims are typical of those who practice what environmentalists call lobbying for lethargy. "In general, the tactic is to create enough controversy and doubt about conclusions of climatologists involving global warming that you can justify inaction by saying we need to study the problem further," Rampton says. "The strategy is not to attempt a full frontal rebuttal of the evidence regarding global warming in the hopes of winning the argument. They just attack to create a sense that there's a controversy there." The methods used for delay, he says, come down to three tactics first laid out by social scientist Goeran Therborn. The Swedish scholar says to argue the following: * A problem doesn't exist. * Even if it exists, it's actually a good thing. * Even if it exists and it's a bad thing, there's nothing we can do about it. These basic arguments enable pundits to muddle an issue with talking points that are then disseminated by the faithful, Rampton says. He says if you look closely, it becomes obvious that these techniques are being used by the very people who have the most to lose if global warming were proved true. It Doesn't Exist?At our first meeting, Westbrook pulls out a sheet of paper that lists what he says are the four false claims made by environmentalists. They state that the earth is warming; that the warming is caused by society's activities, particularly burning fossil fuels; that the warming will devastate the planet; and that society can make the needed changes to avoid a catastrophe."There are good arguments against each of them," Westbrook says. "These are still hypotheses." He presents the names of who he says are prominent scientists who will back up his claims. But two hardly appear to be practicing scientists. Dr. Neil Frank, a former director of the National Hurricane Center, is the weather forecaster for Channel 11. And the only credentials listed on John Daly's Web site are a lifelong study of global warming "since my early days as a ship's officer in the British Merchant Navy." Two others he cites appear to be active researchers in the field. Dr. Richard Lindzen is Sloan professor of Meteorology at MIT and has published climate research in peer-reviewed journals. Dr. Patrick Michaels of the University of Virginia has formed a niche as the go-to scientist for the skeptical view of the greenhouse debate. Lindzen has in the past criticized certain computer models used to predict climate change. His credentials earned him a chance last year to testify before the Senate Environment and Public Works Committee on the nature of consensus in the global warming debate. "I hope it will become clear that the designation 'skeptic' simply confuses an issue where popular perceptions are based in significant measure on misuse of language as well as misunderstanding of science," he testified. "Indeed, the identification of some scientists as 'skeptics' permits others to appear 'mainstream' while denying views of so-called 'skeptics' even when these views represent the predominant views of the field." He said scientists basically agree that global mean temperature and carbon dioxide in the atmosphere have both increased over the past century. There is general consensus, Lindzen told senators, that the added carbon dioxide probably caused the temperature increase, and that man, "like the butterfly," has some impact on climate. "Scientists who do not agree with the catastrophe scenarios are assumed to disagree with these basic statements. This is not only untrue, but absurdly stupid," he said. Patrick Michaels is perhaps the most vocal global warming critic who has unquestioned scientific credentials. He's also a scholar for the Cato Institute, a conservative think tank. "Patrick Michaels is a legitimate climatologist, and if you go much past Michaels, you're dealing with econ majors or people who teach electronics or brick building or something like that," Rampton says. "If they can't get a scientist, then they'll go for people who are respected in other fields." But when asked about claims by others that he discounts that there is global warming, Michaels starts screaming, "I didn't say that! Did I ever say that? Did I ever say that?" Why, Michaels asks, won't someone do an article about how groups distort what scientists are saying to push their agendas? He concedes there is climate change, but thinks it's no big deal. Researchers say that even if there is a practicing scientist who disputes global warming, that is a far cry from widespread disagreement. Science does not prove, so much as disprove, things. Someone proposes a hypothesis, everyone takes their shot at it, and if it's still standing, a consensus emerges. For a public that looks to science for absolutes, it can be unsettling to learn that science is filled with uncertainties. Newton's law of gravity, for instance, has discrepancies that could be explained only later by Einstein's more precise theory of relativity. Since every theory is subjected to rigorous objections, it's easy for others to latch onto past criticisms. As the saying goes, figures don't lie, but liars can figure. Dr. Mahlon Kennicutt knows personally about this kind of spin. The Texas A&M professor and chief chemist of the Geochemical and Environmental Research Group has done work on greenhouse gases, the Antarctic environment and oil exploration in the Gulf of Mexico. He published a scientific paper that showed oil was seeping up from lower depths into higher reservoirs, and relatively quickly in geologic time. It's not surprising that there was also some suggestion that oil is being generated to this day, in a process that still takes millions of years. However, the findings spawned a media circus. "Oil Fields' Free Refill," Newsday cried, and Bruce Bartlett used the study in a National Review editorial that declared "the world will never run out." Even Rush Limbaugh touted the research as evidence of an unlimited oil supply. "That's about as far from the truth as can be," Kennicutt says. "They are finite resources. They always will be." He says scientists have no control over the spin that's put on their research. "I'm not picking on Rush Limbaugh, but I mean, he didn't call me. He just picked up something on the wire and put their spin on it." "I think it's because Rush yells louder," says Dr. Richard Alley, a professor in the Geosciences Department of Penn State who recently made national headlines for his work on rapid climate change. A story buried in the back pages of a newspaper tends to be a little boring and gets lost, he says, then someone yells "Free oil!" and people hear it. "Sometimes the easiest one gets through, and Rush is a whole lot easier than a good article on what exactly was learned," he says. Kennicutt was asked by the Houston Press to review some of Westbrook's scientific papers in industrial newsletters as well as an opinion piece published in the Houston Chronicle. "I noticed that Michael T. Halbouty is the co-author on some of these papers," Kennicutt says. Halbouty is a prominent wildcatter and CEO of Michael T. Halbouty Energy Company. The Chronicle's bio listed him simply as a "Houston-based geoscientist and engineer." (Westbrook says that's the reference Halbouty preferred.) For the most part, though, Kennicutt found the studies Westbrook drew from to be the same used by any climatologist. Westbrook's criticisms were the same raised by prominent scientists in the past, but have since been addressed. "Like any body of evidence, there are certain parts of it that are open to criticism, and if your intent is to indict the entire idea, well, you find the more questionable pieces of data that people have used, and that's where you start to attack," Kennicutt says. He does take issue with the idea that there's not yet enough information to know if we are experiencing global warming. "Well, that's a never-ending argument. How do you counter that?" Bottom line, he says, is that the Westbrook materials he reviewed are political documents. "They refer to scientific documents, but these are...people taking a position based on their view of the world, and certainly, I'm sure on the industry side there's a belief that they haven't been raping and pillaging their environment." He says that a decade or so ago, he also didn't think the science was there to prove global warming. Today Kennicutt can't name a single scientist who asserts that carbon dioxide and temperature are not rising, at least in part because of fossil fuels. "The jump then is what does that increase cause?" All people can do, he says, is be careful about what they read on the Internet and in editorials, and look at the background of the people making the claims. "If all the yeses for climate change are scientists, and all the noes for climate change are oil company executives, I would put that into your thinking when you try to come up with conclusions of your own." He agrees, though, that people don't often know whether those making these kinds of claims are scientists. As it turns out, Westbrook himself later backs off the claim of global warming that he issued in an initial interview days earlier. "I think most scientists would agree the planet is warming," Westbrook now says. "The big area of dispute would be how much is that natural and how much is anthropogenic." So, do scientists believe carbon dioxide is increasing? "I think most would be willing to concede there is some." Is the burning of fossil fuels responsible? "I think so. I think most scientists would think that there is no question that fuel is being burned and that carbon dioxide is being released. The tricky part is, is it accumulated in the ocean first, or is it accumulated in the biosphere first?" He also concedes that there is a consensus that carbon dioxide contributes to the higher temperatures. "But you know what the dominant warming gas is? Water vapor." Westbrook explains his change of opinion by saying he's willing to give serious researchers the benefit of the doubt. His editorials certainly don't give this impression of ambiguity. One argues that saying society is causing the planet to heat is the "most outrageous" claim made in a previous essay by a proponent of warming. His Chronicle piece says we have not proved that "fuel-based carbon dioxide is guilty." He says he does point out his wavering on the issue in his lectures. Westbrook then tries to steer the conversation to the 1997 Kyoto Protocol that seeks international cooperation in regulating carbon dioxide emissions. The plan is endorsed by most industrialized nations but opposed by the Bush administration. At the outer extremes, some conspiracy theorists view the proposal as an opening for eventual United Nations controls over the United States. "I don't have to prove there's nothing to this [global warming] problem," he says. "I just have to prove there's nothing to the Kyoto treaty." It's a Good Thing?Global warming could be great, Westbrook says. He talks of saving on heating bills. "That can be quite significant." What's more important, carbon dioxide is the raw material for plant photosynthesis, "just like crude oil is the raw material for making gasoline."Most crop yields have increased over the last 20 years or so, as well as forests, he says. Furthermore, he notes that humans thrived during a period of global warming in the early Middle Ages. Yet during the Little Ice Age from 1300 to 1900, people had a much rougher time. Westbrook cites support for the idea by the response to the 1998 Oregon Petition and an accompanying official-looking scientific paper called "Environmental Effects of Increased Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide." The paper claims that the release of more carbon dioxide from fossil fuels "will help to maintain and improve the health, longevity, prosperity and productivity of all people." It concludes that "we are living in an increasingly lush environment of plants and animals as a result of CO2 increase. Our children will enjoy an Earth with far more plant and animal life as that with which we are now blessed. This is a wonderful and unexpected gift from the Industrial Revolution." The paper, however, has never been published or submitted for peer review. It is the product of a desktop operation from the Oregon Institute of Science and Medicine, a facility that lists six faculty members. The institute is located in Cave Junction, Colorado, and it also markets the book Nuclear War Survival Skills, homeschooling kits and the "pro-science, pro-technology, pro-free enterprise" monthly newsletter Access to Energy. The founder, biochemist Arthur Robinson, has a facility near Siskiyou National Forest, where he is trying to develop a way to retard aging through the use of "molecular clocks." "He's even more of a maverick than I am," Westbrook admits. Westbrook tells of the nearly 20,000 signatures of scientists supporting the Oregon Petition, although that has been sharply challenged by others. The petition was first mailed to thousands of scientists; people who didn't respond with signature cards can still sign up on the Internet. "Some of the signers of the petition are PR people or meteorologists, economists, people with no background in the field at all, and no scientific credentials whatsoever," Rampton says. Trust Us, We're Experts!, which Rampton co-authored with John Stauber, said the petition screening process was so lax that the names of Michael J. Fox and John Grisham made their way onto the list. The Omaha World-Herald also reported that Geraldine Halliwell, better known as Ginger Spice, made the list as a biology expert. Last October, Scientific American attempted to test the petition's veracity by doing a random sampling of 30 of 1,400 names on the list claiming to hold Ph.D.'s. Nearly a third of the sample said they either did not remember signing the petition or would not sign it again. Of those still willing to sign, only one was an active climate researcher. Ten others could not be reached for comment. Westbrook says he canceled his subscription to Scientific American because of its pro-warming slant. "The skinny version is that for people who live in fairly cold places who own air conditioners and bulldozers [to build sea walls], the first little bit of warming might actually do some good," says Penn State's Alley. "And for people living in hot places without bulldozers, any warming is bad." (Westbrook discounts this, claiming most of the warming occurs at night and in winter.) Alley says that a certain amount of carbon dioxide goes into the ocean or is absorbed by trees, and some plants might even do slightly better, but that will get you only so far. "You can get a little more carbon into standing plants, but you just can't do that forever because eventually someone's going to eat you." Are these just skeptics putting the best possible spin on global warming? "There's some of that," he says. "As a reporter, you're required to look at both sides, and science virtually guarantees that you will find both sides." By finding the few counter voices, he says, the public gets the impression there's more controversy than actually exists. In his experience, however, the articles written about his research tend to be pretty good, but the distortion comes in when the information travels from the science press to the talking heads and Web sites. At a recent debate between Alley and Michaels at Penn State, Alley says Michaels said he was willing to admit humans were warming the world. Of course, "then he said you were going to love it," Alley laughs, "so it's a long way from here to UN storm troopers at the gas station." (Global warming will be "benign to beneficial," Michaels clarifies. "I choose my words very carefully.") "To have Pat Michaels...say, 'Okay, we're warming the world,' to me says that most of the disagreement of human cause of climate change is now going away." Rampton says you can chart the progress of the debate, pointing to a 1991 campaign in Minnesota by the front group Information Council on the Environment, which received funding from the Western Fuels Association. The ICE group ran ads claiming the climate was actually cooling, and compared belief in the greenhouse effect to adherence to the flat-earth theory. "Now what they're saying is that a warmer climate means more vegetation and it will be good for the earth and good for human health, but they're already moving beyond that, too." Can Anything Be Done?After months of harsh criticism from abroad over U.S. opposition to the Kyoto plan, the Environmental Protection Agency finally submitted a U.S. Climate Action Report to the UN in June. The report admits not only that global warming exists but that it is a serious problem. The document warns of more air pollution, public health dangers and damage to ecosystems."Adapting to the changing climate is inevitable," the report said. "The question is whether we adapt poorly or well." A few days later Bush dismissed the report as bureaucratic, but it's the first hint that stage three of Therborn's theory is on the horizon. Westbrook in general knocks computer modeling as inaccurate, but there's one simulation he's happy to highlight. Dr. Tom Wigley of the National Center for Atmospheric Research, he claims, ran a 1998 simulation that assumed full Kyoto compliance by all nations involved. He concluded that the reduction in warming by 2050 would be miniscule -- only about .13 of a degree Fahrenheit. The number of Kyotos required to make a difference, Westbrook says, means "cars go away, the trucks go away. We go back to almost living like the [Native Americans]." Certainly any solution to address global warming will be less quantifiable and guaranteed to spark some dissent among scientists. Whether the consensus is truly to do nothing is another matter. In the age of spin, it's difficult to know where the consensus lies. As is pointed out time and again, there are vested interests on all sides, and environmental organizations have done their fair share of twisting scientific theories into sky-is-falling scenarios. "An oil company wants to sell oil, and a scientist wants research funding," Alley says. Scientists have a desire to convince funding sources to invest more money in their research. And the scientific process can be sloppy or subject to bias and politics. "I truly believe science is about as good as humans do," Alley says. "I say, 'Are we impartial? Are we doing it for truth?' Well, we're worried about our jobs, too." But in the end, scientists have to go out and withstand the scrutiny of their peers, who possess divergent interests and biases of their own. Rampton says that because science ultimately relies on objective reality, the truth eventually will emerge. "After nearly 50 years, the tobacco industry...finally admitted smoking causes lung cancer," he says. "By the time they admitted it, the entire health community, the scientific community, had reached that conclusion for decades." In the meantime, he says, hundreds of thousands died because the industry deliberately encouraged confusion on the issue. In the global warming debate, scientists on the skeptical side tend to be a bit older and many are retired, Westbrook notes. They no longer rely on research grants or regular employment, which means they can focus simply on finding the truth. Or it could mean they're a dying breed. Regardless, he's almost assured of continuing to find an audience willing to have him tell them what they want to hear in Houston. Westbrook does admit to some political reasons for fearing a global warming consensus. If people demand a solution, that inevitably means government will get involved, possibly even leading to a greater role for the UN. "I'd like to see us constrain ourselves as much as we can," he says. We ask him hypothetically what solution he would propose if it were shown that global warming is, in fact, a problem. He is silent for a long moment, as if this possibility had never occurred to him. "I have a hard time responding to your question, because I have such strong convictions that it will not be shown," he says. He apparently hasn't let himself think about that possibility. The implications are just too horrifying.

08/15/2002
Rubin Where Art Thou?
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Press Release

Rubin Where Art Thou?

Yesterday, President Bush hosted a forum in Waco, Texas to defend the administration’s economic policies and those responsible for their formulation. Recent data suggest the economy faces significant hurdles: unemployment continues to rise, productivity growth has slowed, and unease continues to grip the financial markets. With Democrats eager to make the economy the centerpiece of this fall’s midterm elections, it is politically imperative for the Administration to find its voice on economic policy.

08/14/2002
A Conversation with a Conservative
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Press Release

A Conversation with a Conservative

I have had two very different running conversations this year. The first is with inside-the-beltway Republican politicians. They tell me things are going fine and they’re doing the best they can. The other conversation has been with conservative activists all across America. They tell me how bad things look. They say it appears the politicians don’t care about freedom anymore.

08/14/2002

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